发新话题
打印

『期刊』2011 Psychology of Music vol. 39 (3) 目录&摘要

『期刊』2011 Psychology of Music vol. 39 (3) 目录&摘要

Table of Contents
July 2011; 39 (3)

音乐家与非音乐家对音色影是否响音高的评估
    Does timbre affect pitch?: Estimations by musicians and non-musicians
    Psychology of Music July 2011 39: 291-306, first published on August 27, 2010 doi:10.1177/0305735610373602

音乐在成 人期的情感自我调节[作用]
    Music as emotional self-regulation throughout adulthood
    Psychology of Music July 2011 39: 307-327, first published on October 1, 2010 doi:10.1177/0305735610374894

不同类型音乐自我效能的测量
    Measuring distinct types of musical self-efficacy
    Psychology of Music July 2011 39: 328-344, first published on October 27, 2010 doi:10.1177/0305735610374895

自我实现:老年业余键盘乐手的学习 [经历]
    Older amateur keyboard players learning for self-fulfilment
    Psychology of Music July 2011 39: 345-363, first published on October 27, 2010 doi:10.1177/0305735610376262

音乐研究者的音乐参与
    Music researchers’ musical engagement
    Psychology of Music July 2011 39: 364-382, first published on March 23, 2011 doi:10.1177/0305735610381592
音乐心理学分论坛  轻松 “捉虫”得开心果

TOP

音乐家与非音乐家对音色影是否响音高的评估

Does timbre affect pitch?: Estimations by musicians and non-musicians

    Allan Vurma
        Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre, Estonia
    Marju Raju
        Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre, Estonia
    Annika Kuuda
        Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre, Estonia

Abstract
The present article focuses on the question of whether the timbre difference of two sounds with harmonic spectra, produced by natural musical instruments or the singing voice, may influence subjective assessments of the pitch of one sound in relation to the pitch of the other. The authors administered a series of perception tests to a group of professional musicians (n = 13) and a group of non-musicians (n = 13). The tests used the following pre-recorded sounds: the singing voice, the sound of the viola, and the sound of the trumpet. The participants had to compare the pitch of pair-wise presented successive tones and decide whether the second tone was either ‘flat’, ‘sharp’ or ‘in tune’. Tests using stimuli in the pitch range around A3 (220 Hz) at a loudness level of approximately 90 phons revealed pitch shifts of significant magnitude likely to affect intonation quality in a musical performance among both musicians and non-musicians. The conclusion drawn from the study is that timbre-induced pitch shifts may attain magnitudes that are likely to lead to conflicts between subjective and fundamental-frequency-based pitch assessments. Situations are described in which such conflicts may arise in actual musical practice.

    pitch    pitch perception    pitch shift    timbre    tuning

本文通过对两例分别由乐器、人声生成声音的谐波声谱进行研究,讨论音色是否影响主体对两样例音高的评估。实验使用提前录制的人声、中提琴、小号[片段],让专业音乐家与非音乐专业个体各13名,就成对呈现的连续音进行音高比较(高、低、相同)。音高为A3 (220Hz)、音量约为90方的声音刺激,显著影响两组个体对音乐表演中音调特质[的感知]。[由此,]音色引起的音高偏移会导致主观判断与以基频为准的判断相左。文章进一步对音乐练习中此类分歧的产生展开论述。

音高、音高感知、音高偏移、音色、音律
音乐心理学分论坛  轻松 “捉虫”得开心果

TOP

音乐在成 人期的情感自我调节[作用]

Music as emotional self-regulation throughout adulthood

    Suvi Saarikallio
        Department of Music, University of Jyväskylä, Finland

Abstract
Emotional self-regulation is acknowledged as one of the most important reasons for musical engagement at all ages. Yet there is little knowledge on how this self-regulatory use of music develops across the life span. A qualitative study was conducted to initially explore central processes and strategies of the emotional self-regulation during adulthood. The data were collected through group interviews and analyzed through qualitative content analysis. Participants were 21 interviewees with an age range of 21—70 years. The results clarified conceptual features of music-related emotional self-regulation in adulthood and revealed two main trends. First, the basic nature of regulation, including various regulatory goals and strategies, remained highly similar throughout adulthood. Second, however, several changes were also evident, and they could be further categorized into three types: change by age, event-related fluctuations, and retirement transition. The study provided knowledge about the role of music-related emotional experiences as a functional and meaningful part of human behavior and psychosocial development during adulthood.

    age    developmental psychology    emotion    emotional self-regulation    music

情感自我调节被认为是各年龄段 [个体] 音乐参与的重要原因。但 [现有研究] 对自我调节用音乐在人一生中的发展所知甚少。本文对成 人期情感自我调节的核心步骤和策略展开质性研究调查。数据包括对21名(21-70岁)参试者的小组采访和采访质性内容分析。研究结果对与音乐相关的成 人期自我调节的概念性特征进行阐明,并发现两种主要趋势:1)包含多种调节目标和策略是调节的基本性质,且这些特质在成年期高度一致;2)可见变化可根据年龄、事件相关波动、退休过渡,进一步分为三类。文章从人类行为功能性与意义、成 人期心理发展的角度,对与音乐相关情感体验进行了讨论。

年龄、发展心理学、情感、情感自我调节、音乐
音乐心理学分论坛  轻松 “捉虫”得开心果

TOP

不同类型音乐自我效能的测量

Measuring distinct types of musical self-efficacy

    Laura Ritchie
        University of Chichester, UK, Royal College of Music, UK
    Aaron Williamon
        Royal College of Music, UK

Abstract
This research examines the specific nature of self-efficacy beliefs within music. Separate questionnaires assessing self-efficacy for musical learning and self-efficacy for musical performing were developed and tested, and the reliability of the new questionnaires was demonstrated using internal reliability tests and exploratory factor analysis. A sample of 250 conservatoire and university music students completed the two questionnaires and provided self-ratings of musical skills and attributes. The learning and performing questionnaires produced robust Cronbach alphas of .82 and .78, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed a single underlying factor within each questionnaire, and the stability of these questionnaires over time was established through the absence of significant differences in test—retest scores over a period of two to four weeks. Conservatoire students’ self-efficacy for musical learning was higher than that of university students, whereas there were no significant differences between conservatoire and university students in self-efficacy for musical performing. The two questionnaires also showed different patterns of correlations with a range of self-assessed musical skills and attributes, further demonstrating their distinctiveness. These results, which underline the need for differentiation in musical self-efficacy, highlight the importance of specificity and correspondence when measuring self-efficacy beliefs. The implications for measuring self-efficacy within other domains are discussed.

根据对音乐学习、音乐表演品分别进行的问卷调查,本研究对音乐中的自我效能信念进行测试。且采用内部信度检验、外部因子分析,对在此基础上建立的新问卷信度进行检测。共250名音乐学院和大学的音乐学生完成两组问卷,并对音乐技能和 [自身] 特点进行自我评估。学习和表演问卷的Cronbach alphas 系数分别为 .82和 .78。对问卷的探索性因素分析显示,每个问卷存在一个单潜在因子。为期2-4周的测试与再测试得分之间不存在显著差异表明问卷稳定性较高。音乐学院学生音乐学习的个体效能高于大学学生;[但] 两者在音乐表演的个体效能无显著差异。问卷显示:音乐技能和特点自我评估间的相关存在不同模式,更凸显出两者的不同。研究强调:音乐自我效能区分的必要性、测量自我效能信念时特征和关联的重要性。进而,连系相关领域研究对自我效能的测量进行讨论。
音乐心理学分论坛  轻松 “捉虫”得开心果

TOP

自我实现:老年业余键盘乐手的学习 [经历]

Older amateur keyboard players learning for self-fulfilment

    Angela Taylor
        Institute of Education, University of London, UK

Abstract
This article investigates self-reported music learning experiences of 21 older amateur pianists and electronic keyboard players. Significant changes in their lives and the encouragement of friends were catalysts for returning to or taking up a keyboard instrument as an adult, although not all returners had positive memories of learning a keyboard instrument as children. Most participants had experience of learning democratically in a group, obtaining benefits that usually outweighed the drawbacks of limited time available for individual tuition. Those who also engaged with other musical activities used them to enhance their keyboard skills or used their keyboard learning profitably in them. As an outcome of their learning, the participants were able to sustain a personal and social musical identity. The findings suggest that the interaction and interdependence of music learning, musical motivation and musical identity construction can foster the personal growth needed for achieving self-fulfilment as a mature adult.

    amateur pianists    keyboard instrument    musical identity    older music learners    self-fulfilment

通过研究21名老年业余钢琴手和电子键盘手音乐学习经历的自我报告发现:尽管不是所有个体都有愉快的儿时乐器学习经历,生活中重大变化和交友是参试者重拾或决定学习键盘乐器的催化剂。与时间有限的个别指导相比,民主的小组学习方式利大于弊。个体通过参与其它音乐活动加强键盘技巧,或利用键盘学习[经验] 促进活动;以此维持个人与社会音乐认同。结果显示:音乐学习的互动与相互依赖、音乐积极性、音乐认同构建可促进成 人个体个人自我实现的达成。

业余钢琴手、键盘乐器、音乐认同、老年音乐学习者、自我实现
音乐心理学分论坛  轻松 “捉虫”得开心果

TOP

音乐研究者的音乐参与

Music researchers’ musical engagement

    Clemens Wöllner
        University of Bremen, Germany
    Jane Ginsborg
        Royal Northern College of Music, UK
    Aaron Williamon
        Royal College of Music, UK

Abstract
There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music researchers. A total of 103 respondents of 17 different nationalities, working in music psychology, music science and related areas at various academic levels (e.g., doctoral students, professors and independent researchers), completed an internet survey. Questions addressed four major areas: (1) detailed demographic information and research interests; (2) musical training; (3) current musical activities (e.g., composing, conducting, improvising, listening, performing); (4) musical preferences and listening habits. Findings indicate that nearly all respondents to the survey had studied one or more musical instrument(s), and around 90% still enjoy performing music to some extent. A relatively high number of researchers had composed or improvised music, thus engaging in particularly creative musical activities. Respondents show stronger preferences for classical music and jazz/blues/RnB as compared with other musical genres. Contrary to notions of expert listening, emotional listening styles were rated as more important than analytical listening. Strong relationships between respondents’ musical practice and research were found, leading to the conclusion that music research is a highly practice-informed field.

listening    music psychology    performance    reflexivity    research and practice    research context

不同领域对反思 [reflexivity] 重要性的重视日见增加,促使研究者 [不断] 审视研究观点。本文基于音乐研究情境,对音乐研究者的音乐背景、当前音乐参与程度、[音乐] 聆听习惯进行调查。共103名来自17个不同国家的个体参与在线问卷。参试者为音乐心理学、音乐科学及相关领域的研究者(博士生、教授和独立研究者)。问卷问题包括:1)详细的人口统计信息和研究兴趣;2)音乐训练;3)目前 [参与] 音乐活动(如:作曲、指挥、即兴创作、鉴赏、表演);4)音乐偏好与聆听习惯。研究结果显示:几乎所有参与调查个体至少学习过一种乐器。其中90%仍在某种程度参与表演。相当数量的研究者参与作曲和即兴创作等创新性音乐活动。与其他音乐风格相比,参试个体更倾向于古典、爵士、布鲁斯和节奏布鲁斯。与专家鉴赏不同,情感性聆听模式被认为比分析聆听更重要。个体音乐练习与研究间的紧密关联表明:音乐研究领域是基于高实践性的。

聆听、音乐心理学、表演、反思、研究与实践、研究情境
音乐心理学分论坛  轻松 “捉虫”得开心果

TOP

发新话题