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『期刊』2011 Psychology of Music vol. 39 (2) 目录&摘要

『期刊』2011 Psychology of Music vol. 39 (2) 目录&摘要

April 2011; 39 (2)
音乐的触动:对音乐聆听者的类型学研究
      Moved by music: A typology of music listeners
      Psychology of Music April 2011 39: 147-163, first published on August 27, 2010 doi:10.1177/0305735610370223


音乐节环境中音乐对参与者的心理、社交健康的影响
      The impact of music festival attendance on young people’s psychological and social well-being
      Psychology of Music April 2011 39: 164-181, first published on October 1, 2010 doi:10.1177/0305735610372611


音乐与时间:实验范式、音乐结构、主体评价对主观时间预计的影响
      Music and time: the effect of experimental paradigm, musical structure and subjective evaluations on time estimation
      Psychology of Music April 2011 39: 182-195, first published on November 25, 2010 doi:10.1177/0305735610372612


表现性音乐表演构建中表演者的情感经验:探索性研究
      Performers’ experienced emotions in the construction of expressive musical performance: An exploratory investigation
      Psychology of Music April 2011 39: 196-219, first published on November 8, 2010 doi:10.1177/0305735610373563


不同感官的“冷颤”:由听觉、视觉、触觉和味觉刺激产生的惊栗
      Chills in different sensory domains: Frisson elicited by acoustical, visual, tactile and gustatory stimuli
      Psychology of Music April 2011 39: 220-239, first published on August 17, 2010 doi:10.1177/0305735610362950


不安全感、专业社交能力与酒精:青年自.由音乐人对音乐专业工作和生活的观点
      Insecurity, professional sociability, and alcohol: Young freelance musicians’ perspectives on work and life in the music profession
      Psychology of Music April 2011 39: 240-260, first published on August 27, 2010 doi:10.1177/0305735610373562


品牌命名中音乐运用的可行方法:基于语言的音乐设计
      Developing a functional method to apply music in branding: Design language-generated music

      Psychology of Music April 2011 39: 261-283, first published on January 24, 2011 doi:10.1177/0305735610387778

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音乐的触动:对音乐聆听者的类型学研究

Moved by music: A typology of music listeners

Tom F.M. Ter Bogt
University of Utrecht, the Netherlands
Juul Mulder
Ministry of Justice, The Hague, the Netherlands
Quinten A.W. Raaijmakers
University of Utrecht, the Netherlands
Saoirse Nic Gabhainn
National University of Ireland, Galway

Abstract
A typology of music listeners was constructed on the basis of importance attributed to music and four types of music use: mood enhancement; coping with problems; defining personal identity; and marking social identity. Three Listener Groups were identified through Latent Class Analysis of internet survey data of 997 Dutch respondents, aged 12—29. High-Involved listeners (19.7%) experienced music as a very important medium and used music most often for mood enhancement, coping with distress, identity construction and social identity formation. Medium- (74.2%) and Low- Involved (6.1%) listeners formed two distinct groups with less intense importance/use patterns Furthermore, High-Involved listeners reported that they liked a broad range of genres (Pop, Rock, High Brow, Urban and Dance) and experienced the most intense positive affect when listening. However, both High- and Medium-Involved listeners also reported more negative affects (anger and sadness) when listening, compared to the Low-Involved group. Even the Low-Involved group listened frequently to music and used music as a mood enhancer. Generally, people who are ‘moved by music’, either positively or negatively, use it for mood enhancement and coping more often. Therefore, the High-Involved group seems to benefit most from music’s capacity to enliven and enlighten life.

emotions during listening  internalizing problems music taste

对音乐聆听者的分类学研究基于音乐的重要性与音乐使用的四种类型:情绪改善、问题处理、个体认同确定和社会认同标识。对997名12-29岁荷兰青少年进行网络调查的数据潜类别分析显示,音乐倾听者可分为三组。高参与度倾听者(19.7%)感受到音乐为重要媒介,并经常利用音乐的四种 [功能] 类型。中参与度(74.2%)和低参与度(6.1%)聆听者则为两个显著不同的组群,对音乐重要性与功能类型的利用度较低。但高、中参与度个体较低参与度聆听者表示出更多负面情绪(愤怒、伤感)影响。低参与度个体也经常用音乐改善情绪。总之,被音乐‘感动’个体,无论积极或消极,都更多使用音乐来调节情绪。因此,高参与度组在通过音乐能力来丰富、充实生活的过程中获益更多。

关键词:情感、持久聆听、问题内在化、音乐品位
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音乐节环境中音乐对参与者的心理、社交健康的影响

The impact of music festival attendance on young people’s psychological and social well-being

Jan Packer
The University of Queensland, Australia
Julie Ballantyne
The University of Queensland, Australia

Abstract
Although the social, emotional, physical and cognitive benefits of engagement in music are well known, little research has been conducted on the psychological benefits of music in the context of music festivals. This article draws on theoretical constructs from the field of positive psychology to interpret the impact of music festival attendance on participants’ psychological and social well-being. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from a focus group and questionnaire survey with young festival-goers aged 18—29 years. Four facets of the music festival experience were identified that were associated with well-being outcomes. These are explored and discussed with reference both to participants’ focus group comments and statistical analysis of questionnaire responses. A conceptual model is presented in order to guide further research in this area, and enable both festival organizers and attendees to take optimal advantage of the potential of music festivals to impact positively on young adults’ psychological and social well-being.

music music festivals psychological well-being visitor experiences youth

尽管在社会、情感、心理、认知活动中音乐介入的益处广为人知,但对音乐节情境中音乐的积极心理影响研究甚少。本文从积极心理学角度,对音乐在音乐节环境中促进参与者的心理、社交健康进行理论构建。对一组18-29岁青年参与者定性、定量数据及问卷的分析显示:有四项音乐节经历与积极影响相关联。通过对焦点组评论,统计分析和问卷反馈进行讨论,本文为此领域研究提供一指导性概念模型。利用这一模型,音乐节组织者、参与者可将通过音乐节影响青年个体心理、社交健康的潜力最佳化。

音乐,音乐节,心理健康,参观者体验,青年
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音乐与时间:实验范式、音乐结构、主体评价对主观时间预计的影响

Music and time: the effect of experimental paradigm, musical structure and subjective evaluations on time estimation

Naomi Ziv
College of Tel Aviv Yaffo, Israel
Elad Omer
College of Tel Aviv Yaffo, Israel

Abstract
The effect of experimental paradigm, musical structure and subjective evaluations on time estimation was studied. In a 2 (prospective/retrospective) × 2 (tonal/atonal) between-subjects design, participants listened to either a tonal or an atonal piece in a prospective or a retrospective paradigm and were asked to estimate its duration, and rate it on perceived pleasantness and structure. Interaction effects between experimental paradigm and musical structure were found for time estimations and for subjective ratings. The tonal piece was estimated as longer, more pleasant and in a clearer key in the retrospective paradigm, whereas the reverse was found for the atonal piece. Moreover, time estimations were negatively and positively related to subjective ratings in the prospective and retrospective paradigms respectively. Results are discussed in relation to existing models of time estimation.

music prospective retrospective subjective time estimation

本文研究了实验范式、音乐结构、主体评价对时间预计的影响。采用2(预期/回忆)(调性/无调性)x2主体间设计,参试者分别对调性或非调性片段进行试听;并在预期范式或回忆范式条件下预计片段持续时间、标定愉悦程度和 [音乐] 结构。时间预计和主观标定间存在实验范式与音乐结构的交互作用。调性 [音乐] 片段被预计持续时间更长、更愉悦,回忆范式中调性更清晰;非调性片段则相反。时间预计与预期范式中的主观标定负相关,与会议范式中的主观标定正相关。同时,本文将此研究结果与现有时间预计模型进行讨论。

音乐、预期、回忆、主观、时间预计
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表现性音乐表演构建中表演者的情感经验:探索性研究

Performers’ experienced emotions in the construction of expressive musical performance: An exploratory investigation

Anemone G. W. Van Zijl
University of Jyväskylä, Finland
John Sloboda
Keele University, UK, Guildhall School of Music and Drama, UK

Abstract
Does a performer feel sad when s/he performs a sad piece of music, or does s/he perform sadness? Not much is known about the relationship between felt and performed emotions in performing musicians. Some studies emphasize the importance of feeling the emotions; others underline the idea of planned expressiveness. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between a performer’s experienced emotions and the construction of a musically expressive performance. Eight music students (mean age: 20.9, SD: 1.13) completed an introductory, semi-structured interview; a monitoring period during which they filled out an Individual Playing Diary; and an in-depth, semi-structured interview based on the diary. Differences were found between performers’ emotions related to the practice activity (e.g., frustration at not being able to master technical difficulties) and emotions related to the music (e.g., aesthetic delight). Initially, practice-related emotions prevailed. Then, music-related emotions came to the fore. As the learning process developed, ‘feeling’ the musical emotions transformed into ‘knowing’ the musical emotions: the expressive interpretation, and the intensity of felt emotions waned. At the point of performance, some felt emotion was added again. These findings provide a detailed insight into an under-studied aspect of music performance as a creative practice.

felt emotion expressive performance musical learning perceived emotion performing musicians

表演者在演出悲伤音乐片段时感受到悲伤,还是在表演悲伤?已有研究对表演音乐家情感感受和情感表演两者间关系的所知甚少。有些研究强调情感的感受,另一些认为表现具计划性。本文旨在研究表现性音乐表演构建中表演者的情感经验。八名音乐专业学生(平均年龄:20.9)完成以下任务:半结构化先导采访、监督下个人演奏日志、基于日志的半结构化深度采访。结果表明:表演者练习活动相关情感(如:无法掌握技巧难点的沮丧)与音乐相关情绪存在不同(如:艺术愉悦感)。起初,与练习相关的情感显著;随后,与音乐相关情感更为明显。在学习过程中,对音乐情感的感受逐渐转化为对音乐情感的了解,既:表现性诠释;而情感感受强度减弱。在表演时,部分情感感受会再次出现。本文填补了在创新性音乐表演领域的研究缺失。

关键词:情感感受、表现性表演、音乐学习、情感感知、表演音乐家
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不同感官的“冷颤”:由听觉、视觉、触觉和味觉刺激产生的惊栗

Chills in different sensory domains: Frisson elicited by acoustical, visual, tactile and gustatory stimuli

Oliver Grewe
Hanover University of Music and Drama, Germany
Björn Katzur
Christian-Albrechts University Kiel, Germany
Reinhard Kopiez
Hanover University of Music and Drama, Germany
Eckart Altenmüller
Hanover University of Music and Drama, Germany

Abstract
‘Chills’ (frisson manifested as goose bumps or shivers) have been used in an increasing number of studies as indicators of emotions in response to music (e.g., Craig, 2005; Guhn, Hamm, & Zentner, 2007; McCrae, 2007; Panksepp, 1995; Sloboda, 1991). In this study we present evidence that chills can be induced through aural, visual, tactile, and gustatory stimulation. Additionally, chills were elicited by mere mental self-stimulation — even without any external stimulus. Subjective ratings and physiological responses (i.e., skin conductance response, heart rate, breathing rate) of 36 participants reporting chills were recorded in response to stimuli of the named sensory domains. Chills in response to all external stimuli showed similar physiological correlates. However, they differed in the subjective affective perception: more chills occurred in response to negative valent and arousing sounds and pictures, while more chills were reported for positive valent music independent of arousal. These findings suggest that the chill phenomenon could be a valuable indicator of strong emotions. However, the measurement of chills should be combined with other methods of emotion measurement, since chills can be a response to psychological events of different affective value.

chill emotion frisson music physiology

冷颤(毛发直立或打哆嗦)越来越多地在研究中被作为音乐回应的情感指示器。本研究证据显示:冷颤可通过听觉、视觉、触觉和味觉刺激诱发。冷颤由精神自身刺激引起,甚至不需要外界刺激。根据36名产生冷颤参试者对特定感官刺激的主体标定与心理反应(如:皮肤电导反应,心率、呼吸频率)的记录,冷颤与所有外部刺激显示类似心理相关,但其主观情感感知却不相同。[]。研究发现显示:冷颤现象是强烈情感的有价值指示器。由于冷颤可为对不同心理事件情感值的反应,其测量需与其它情感量度相结合。


关键词:冷颤、情感、惊栗、音乐、心理学



注:红字处为未翻译部分,暂时无法理解所述内容。求高手!
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不安全感、专业社交能力与酒精:青年自.由音乐人对音乐专业工作和生活的观点

Insecurity, professional sociability, and alcohol: Young freelance musicians’ perspectives on work and life in the music profession

Melissa C. Dobson
University of Sheffield, UK

Abstract
Research addressing a link between musical creativity and mental disorder has predominantly considered composers rather than performers, and has been dominated by the questionable use of retrospective biographical research methods. This article calls for research to explore more widely the stressors and challenges that living musicians face in their work and lives. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 18 young musicians (nine freelance classical string players and nine jazz musicians). The participants expressed concern over their lack of job and financial security, and stressed the importance of reputations in the networks of musicians in which they operate. Socializing professionally was identified as a key means of advancing work prospects, in which alcohol consumption often played a strong role. Drinking patterns were also associated with the demands of performance, with alcohol consumption arising either as a consequence of pressure or boredom. These results are discussed in light of the limited existing research investigating musicians’ uses of alcohol.

alcohol freelance musicians jazz job insecurity musicians’ lifestyles reputations social competence string players

以个人回顾为方法的研究声称:音乐创造力与精神失调间的联系主要出现在作曲家个体,而非表演艺术家。本文对当前音乐家在工作和生活中所要应对的紧张因素和挑战展开更广泛研究。共18名青年音乐家(9名古典弦乐自.由音乐人、9名爵士音乐家)接受了半结构化采访。参试者表达出对工作、收入稳定性的担忧,及在音乐圈中名声的重要性。专业社交能力被认为是开展工作的重要环节,而酒精摄入是其中要件。饮酒方式与表演需求相联系,压力或无聊会导致酒精摄入量提高。根据现有研究,文章对音乐家酒精使用进行了深入讨论。

关键词:酒精、自.由音乐人、爵士、工作安全感、音乐家生活方式、名声、社交能力、弦乐音乐家
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品牌命名中音乐运用的可行方法:基于语言的音乐设计

Developing a functional method to apply music in branding: Design language-generated music

Warren Brodsky
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel, wbrodsky@bgu.ac.il

Abstract
Manufacturers, marketing agencies, and researchers of consumer studies have handled music in a haphazard fashion. Music is often captive to financial resources, political agendas, or lack of know-how; choices rarely reflect criteria attributable to the brand. Linking music to a brand or product is a liability, as consumers’ impressions can be manipulated by incongruent music, causing brand image to shift. The current study developed a strategy for applying music by employing design language as a template for composition. Two General Motors (GM) automobile brands served as products under investigation. Four studies, in two countries, recruited potential customers, sales clerks, walk-in buyers, and targeted consumers. The investigation found that consumers could decode composers’ intentions to express brand characteristics and product features, and were consistently successful in designating design language-generated music to the appropriate brand. The study found both culturally specific and cultural-free brand images as expressed through music preferences.

branding car videos design language marketing music in advertising

制造商、营销商、消费者研究学者将音乐作为偶然的时尚。[因此,]音乐也经常受制于财政资源、政策议程或认知不足。从而,音乐的选择很少能反映品牌具有的特质。将音乐与品牌、商品建立联系是一种责任。不协调的音乐会造成消费者对品牌印象的偏差。本研究 运用一种将设计语言作为作曲模板的策略,对两个GM汽车品牌进行调查。调查包括在两个国家开展的4项研究:潜在消费者、销售员、临时购买者和目标客户。结果显示:消费者能解读作曲家想表现出的品牌特征和产品特性,并始终能将基于设计语言的音乐与恰当的品牌对应。通过音乐偏好表现出的品牌形象既显示文化特有性、也具有文化通用性。

关键词:品牌、汽车视频、设计语言、营销、广告音乐
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